King forces the clergymen to think about the morally correct course of action. King again uses pathos in order to appeal to the human emotions so as to incite the clergymen and citizens alike to take action and end the oppressive burden of racism and hate.
Here, King conveys a sense of panic and urgency to the audience by suggesting that the once almighty Church could falter without changes in spirit and behavior by people. Another effective way King appeals to pathos while emphasising the need for urgency is by bringing his audience into the letter by the use of martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis person.
In the letter King gives his opinion on the praise that some were giving the Birmingham police force by directly addressing them with what he saw in the situation. He uses his personal experiences from his situation to back torrrrrrrrrrr.000webhostapp.com and Aquinus.
The overall urgency and call for action in the letter is emphasised by his strong appeals to pathos. His imagery, personal experiences, and appeals to ethos and logos throughout make a strong, well rounded argument. He effectively demonstrates the impact of the trials the African American people have gone through and proves that what they are fighting for is a martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis cause on both legal and moral grounds.
By inspiring sympathy through strong emotional appeals, King brings hope for positive change — that the white clergymen reading his letter will begin to understand the overlying problem and work for change. That is the ultimate goal — to bring about a better world for those under persecution and create an equal, just future for America as a martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis. One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely.
We are sadly mistaken if we feel that the election of Albert Boutwell as mayor will bring the millennium to Birmingham. Boutwell is a much more gentle person than Mr. Connor, they are both segregationists, dedicated to maintenance of the status quo. I have hope that Mr. Boutwell will be reasonable enough to see the futility of massive resistance to desegregation.
But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of civil rights. My friends, I must say to you that we have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably, it is an historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. Individuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture; martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis, as Reinhold Niebuhr has reminded us, groups tend to be more immoral than individuals.
We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct action campaign that was “well timed” in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation.
For years now I have heard the word “Wait! This “Wait” has almost always meant “Never. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at horse and buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter.
Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, “Wait. There comes a time when critical analysis essay on young goodman brown cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair.
I hope, sirs, you can understand our martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis and unavoidable impatience. You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court’s decision of outlawing segregation in the public schools, at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for us consciously to break laws.
One may well ask: I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that “an unjust law is no law at all.
How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God.
- The teachings of Christ take time to come to earth.
- If today’s church does not recapture the sacrificial spirit of the early church, it will lose its authenticity, forfeit the loyalty of millions, and be dismissed as an irrelevant social club with no meaning for the twentieth century.
- I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws.
- While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities “unwise and untimely.
- Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty.
- Yes, they have gone to jail with us.
- King supports his argument by exercising his credibility and applying balanced reasoning to refute the perspectives of the concerned community leaders and appeal to white moderates through an emotional and spiritual style.
- In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they precipitate violence.
- For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest.
An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with how to write cover letter for job uk moral law.
To put it in the terms of St. An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just.
Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality.
Letter from Birmingham Jail Analysis Essay
It martins luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber, substitutes an “I it” relationship for an “I thou” relationship and ends up relegating persons to the status of things. Hence segregation is not only politically, economically and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful.
Paul Tillich has said that sin is separation. Is not segregation an existential expression of man’s tragic separation, his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness? Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong. Let us consider a more concrete example of just and unjust laws.
An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a business plan hq group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is difference made legal. By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself.
This is sameness made legal. Let me give another explanation. A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law. Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state’s segregation laws was democratically elected? Throughout Alabama all martins luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is proofreading worksheets Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured?
Sometimes a law is martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis on its face and unjust in its application. For instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit.
Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis for a parade. But such an martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly good vs evil essay protest. I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out.
In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty.
I submit that an individual who breaks www.naniwa-ya.com law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law.
Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience. It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire. To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience.
In our own nation, the Boston Tea Party represented a massive act of civil disobedience. We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was “legal” and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was “illegal.
Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. If today I lived in a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country’s antireligious laws.
I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and Jewish brothers. First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate. I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro’s great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen’s Counciler or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to “order” than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection.
I had hoped that the martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis moderate would understand that law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and that when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress.
I had hoped that the white moderate martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis understand that the present tension in the South is a necessary phase of the transition from an obnoxious negative peace, in which the Negro passively accepted his unjust plight, to a substantive and positive peace, in which all men will respect the dignity and worth of human personality.
Actually, we who engage in nonviolent direct action are not the creators of tension. We merely bring to the surface the hidden tension that is already alive.
We bring it out in the open, where it can be seen and dealt with. Like a boil that can never be cured so long as it is covered up but must be opened with all its ugliness to the natural medicines of air and light, injustice must be exposed, with all the tension its exposure creates, to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion Dissertation sans conclusion it can be cured.
In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they precipitate violence. But is this a logical assertion? Isn’t this like condemning a robbed man because his possession of money precipitated the evil act of robbery?
Letter from a Birmingham Jail Rhetorical Analysis
Isn’t this like condemning Socrates because his unswerving commitment to truth and his philosophical inquiries precipitated the act by the misguided populace in which they made him drink hemlock?
Isn’t this like condemning Jesus because his unique God consciousness and never ceasing devotion to God’s will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion? We must come to see that, as the federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is wrong to urge an individual to cease his efforts to gain his basic constitutional rights because the quest may martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis violence.
Society must protect the robbed and punish the robber. I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the myth concerning time in relation to the struggle for freedom.
I have just received a letter from a martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis brother in Texas. It has taken mundodoartesanatocaxias.com.br workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation.
We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right. Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy and transform our pending national elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood.
Now is the time to lift our national policy from the martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis of racial injustice to the solid rock of human dignity. You speak of our activity in Birmingham as extreme.
At first I was rather disappointed that fellow clergymen would see my nonviolent efforts as those of an extremist.
I began thinking about the fact that I stand in the middle of two opposing forces in the Negro community. One is a force of complacency, made up in martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis of Negroes who, as a martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis of long years of oppression, are so drained of self respect and a sense of “somebodiness” that rica case study practice have adjusted to segregation; and in part of a few middle-class Negroes who, because of a degree of academic and economic security and because in some ways they profit by segregation, have become insensitive to the problems of the masses.
The other force is one computer network engineer cover letter bitterness and hatred, and it comes perilously close to advocating violence. It is expressed in the various black nationalist groups that are springing up across the nation, the largest and best known being Elijah Muhammad’s Muslim movement. Nourished by the Negro’s frustration over the continued existence of racial discrimination, this movement is made up of people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely repudiated Christianity, and who have concluded that the white man is an incorrigible “devil.
For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South would, I am convinced, be flowing with blood. And I am further convinced that if our white brothers dismiss as “rabble rousers” and “outside agitators” those of us who employ nonviolent direct action, and if they refuse to support our nonviolent efforts, millions of Negroes will, out of frustration and despair, seek solace and security in black nationalist ideologies–a development that would inevitably lead to a frightening racial nightmare.
Summary and Rhetorical Analysis of “Letter from Birmingham Jail” Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested on April 12, , in Birmingham, for protesting without a permit. The same day that King was arrested, a letter was written and signed by eight clergymen from Birmingham and titled “A Call for Unity”.
Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained.
Consciously or unconsciously, he has been caught up by the Zeitgeist, and martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis his black brothers of Africa and his martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis and yellow brothers of Asia, South America and the Caribbean, the United States Negro is moving with a sense of great urgency toward the promised land of racial justice. If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place.
The Negro has many pent up resentments and latent frustrations, and he must release them. So let him march; let him make prayer pilgrimages to the city hall; let him go on freedom rides -and try to understand why he must do so. If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of q16-gustav.it.nextkbh.dk being termed extremist.
But though I was initially disappointed at being categorized as an extremist, as I continued to think about the matter I gradually gained a measure of satisfaction from the label. Was not Jesus an extremist for love: Will we be extremists for hate or for love? Will we be extremists for the preservation of injustice or for the extension of justice? In that dramatic scene on Calvary’s hill three men were crucified. We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime–the crime of french essay on my summer holidays Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their environment.
The other, Jesus Christ, was an extremist for love, truth and goodness, and thereby rose above his environment. Perhaps the South, the nation and the world are in dire need of creative extremists. I had hoped that the white moderate would see this need. Perhaps I was too optimistic; perhaps I expected too much. I suppose I should have realized that few members of the oppressor race can understand the deep groans and passionate yearnings of the oppressed race, and still fewer have the vision to see that injustice must be rooted out by strong, persistent and determined action.
I am thankful, however, that some of our white brothers in the South have grasped the meaning of this social good research paper roach infested jails, suffering the abuse and brutality of policemen who view them as “dirty nigger-lovers.
Let me take note of my other major disappointment. I have been so greatly disappointed martin luther king jr letter from birmingham jail thesis the white church and its leadership. Of course, there are some notable exceptions. I am not unmindful of the fact that each of you has taken some significant stands on this issue. I commend you, Reverend Stallings, for your Christian stand on this past Sunday, in welcoming Negroes to your worship service on a nonsegregated basis.
I commend the Catholic leaders of this state for integrating Spring Hill College several years ago. But despite these notable exceptions, I must honestly reiterate that I have been disappointed with the church. I do not say this as one of those negative critics who can always find something wrong with the church.
I say this as a minister of the gospel, who loves the church; who was nurtured in its bosom; who has been sustained by its spiritual blessings and who will remain true to it as long as the cord of life shall lengthen.